Le JDD 27 janvier 2013

le JDD

Société  |  27 janvier 2013

"Repenser les temps de vie de l'enfant"

Claire Leconte, chronobiologiste, professeure émérite de psychologie de l'éducation à l'université Lille-III.

Le projet de décret modifiant les rythmes scolaires ne satisfait ni les syndicats ni les fédérations de parents d'élèves, pourtant cette réforme est indispensable. La semaine de 4 jours déstructure les rythmes biologiques de l'enfant, avec la modification permanente du rythme veille/sommeil. Travailler sur quatre jours impose une massification des apprentissages, alors que l'on sait qu'il faut les étaler dans le temps. La semaine de quatre jours est une aberration, cependant ce qui est proposé dans le projet de décret n'est pas du tout à même de répondre aux évolutions attendues. Ce texte ne fait que réaménager à la marge l'existant : une demi-heure de temps scolaire est gagnée chaque jour, mais des " activités pédagogiques complémentaires " doivent être rajoutées, et on ignore leur contenu.

C'est toute l'organisation des temps de vie de l'enfant, et pas seulement le temps scolaire, dont il faut s'emparer. Le consensus sur le retour à la semaine de quatre jours et demi, qui semblait obtenu durant la concertation cet été, s'effrite. Ce qui manque pour mener à bien une vraie réforme, c'est une information construite, donnée à l'ensemble des acteurs impliqués auprès des enfants, sur ce qu'est l'enfant, sur ce que sont ses rythmes et ses besoins. Les questions centrales ne sont jamais posées : comment organiser les temps scolaires pour s'assurer de l'équité dans les apprentissages pour tous les enfants, que tous les enfants soient au meilleur de leur forme pour suivre le programme en classe ? On se contente de demander aux adultes s'ils acceptent de changer leurs habitudes, sans jamais leur montrer l'intérêt que cela pourrait avoir aussi pour eux.

Beaucoup d'enseignants appréhendent un changement de rythme. Ils ont pourtant beaucoup à y gagner... Les enseignants qui travaillent sur des matinées plus longues ont la possibilité d'alterner des séquences pédagogiques coûteuses sur le plan cognitif avec des séquences qui le sont moins. Des après-midi plus courts, voire libérés, leur permettent de préparer la classe, de se former...

Modifier les temps scolaires, en les replaçant dans l'ensemble des temps de vie des enfants, est une première étape à la refondation nécessaire de cette école, mais on ne le fera intelligemment que si on permet aux élèves d'avoir aux moments où ils sont les plus disponibles, le matin, toutes les activités qui relèvent de l'école, et non pas celles que les enseignants considèrent généralement comme "fondamentales". Le gros problème est qu'on a surtout envie de laisser l'école fermée sur elle-même, forteresse intouchable, alors qu'elle ne représente qu'une petite partie du temps d'éducation que traverse l'enfant au cours de sa vie. N'a-t-on pas une responsabilité à s'interroger sur la cohérence que l'on donne dans ces différents temps à ces enfants qui sont victimes de la société actuelle?

Propos recueillis par Adeline Fleury - leJDD.fr

dimanche 27 janvier 2013

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