Lettre de l'éducation 14 janvier 2013

 La Lettre n°761

14 janvier 2013

LE POINT AVEC...

Claire Leconte : La réforme des rythmes scolaires « ne fait que réaménager à la marge l’existant »

 

Claire Leconte est chronobiologiste, professeure émérite de psychologie de l’éducation à l’université Lille-III.

Le projet de décret modifiant les rythmes scolaires dans le 1er degré ne satisfait ni les syndicats d’enseignants ni les parents d’élèves. Quel regard la chronobiologiste que vous êtes porte-t-elle sur cette réforme ? 
On sait, depuis un demi-siècle, que cette réforme est indispensable. Que la semaine scolaire des enfants est, en France, la pire qui soit : la rupture du long week-end, plus que le mercredi, a des effets délétères sur les horloges biologiques, le rythme veille-sommeil. Travailler sur quatre jours impose, en outre, une massification des apprentissages, alors que l’on sait qu’il faut distribuer ces apprentissages dans le temps. Reste que ce qui est proposé dans le projet de décret n’est pas du tout à même de répondre aux évolutions attendues. Ce texte nous ramène à une organisation proche de celle qui a existé avant la précédente réforme des rythmes, en 2008. Il ne fait que réaménager à la marge l’existant : une demi-heure de temps scolaire est gagnée chaque jour, mais des « activités pédagogiques complémentaires » doivent être rajoutées, et on ignore encore leur durée. C’est toute l’organisation des temps de vie de l’enfant, et pas seulement le temps scolaire, dont il faut s’emparer.

Le consensus sur le retour à la semaine de quatre jours et demi d’école, qui semblait obtenu durant la concertation cet été, semble aujourd’hui s’effriter. A quelles résistances se heurte-t-il ? 
Si ce consensus semble céder, c’est parce que beaucoup d’acteurs du monde éducatif ignorent les enjeux véritables. Ce qui manque pour mener à bien une vraie réforme, c’est une information construite, donnée à l’ensemble des acteurs impliqués auprès des enfants, sur ce qu’est l’enfant, sur ce que sont ses rythmes et ses besoins. Les connaissances sont parcellaires, pas toujours justes. Et on ne donne pas aux personnels le temps nécessaire pour s’informer et mener une réflexion correctement.

Vous avez suivi - parfois coordonné - de nombreuses expérimentations en matière de rythmes scolaires ces vingt dernières années. Quelles sont les plus abouties ? 
Ce qui caractérise les projets auxquels j’ai participé, c’est qu’ils ne se sont pas limités au temps scolaire mais ont englobé l’ensemble des temps de l’enfant. A Lille, nous avons expérimenté, dans un groupe scolaire, la semaine de six jours entre 1996 et 2008. Allonger les matinées à quatre heures par jour, avec deux pauses de quinze minutes, a permis aux enseignants d’aborder toutes les disciplines le matin, et pas seulement les fondamentaux, au moment même où les enfants sont le plus disponibles. Le mardi après-midi comprenait deux heures de cours, mais tous les autres après-midi étaient consacrés à des projets éducatifs construits en partenariat avec des mouvements d’éducation populaire. Après la réforme des rythmes de 2008, qui a supprimé le samedi matin travaillé, on a expérimenté cinq matinées de quatre heures par semaine, et deux après-midi de deux heures. Cela fonctionne toujours aujourd’hui.

A-t-on démontré l’influence des rythmes scolaires sur les élèves et leurs apprentissages ? 
Les expériences autour de la semaine de quatre jours ont débuté dans les années 1990 et, dès cette époque-là, on a pu constater que ce fonctionnement dérégulait les rythmes biologiques des enfants, qu’il mettait encore plus en difficulté les élèves déjà en difficulté. Ce modèle n’a d’ailleurs jamais existé à l’étranger, sauf dans le canton de Genève, qui doit y mettre un terme en septembre. A l’inverse, nos expérimentations de la semaine de six jours ont été évaluées, et leurs bienfaits démontrés autant sur les apprentissages que sur l’estime de soi des enfants ou sur le climat scolaire.

Beaucoup d’enseignants appréhendent un changement de rythme. Ils ont pourtant, assurez-vous, beaucoup à y gagner... 
Les enseignants qui travaillent sur des matinées plus longues ont la possibilité d’alterner des séquences pédagogiques coûteuses sur le plan cognitif avec des séquences qui le sont moins. Ils ont le temps d’aborder toutes les disciplines et ont des élèves plus disponibles. Des après-midi plus courts, voire libérés, leur permettent de préparer la classe, de rencontrer des collègues... Dommage que beaucoup d’enseignants ignorent ces résultats !

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